Integrated circuit (IC), also known as chip or microchip is a semiconductor which incorporated large number of electronic components, such as transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors, on a single piece of semiconductor material, typically silicon. The components are interconnected by wires or metallization layers to create a functional circuit that can perform various tasks, such as amplification, switching, or logic operations.
ICs are built with semiconducting components such as silicon. Because of the small size and delicate nature of IC, a series of tiny gold and aluminium wires are joined together and moulded into a flat block of plastic or ceramic. Metal pins on the block's exterior link to cables inside. Here are some key features of integrated circuits:
Low power consumption
An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, logic gate, computer memory, microcontroller or microprocessor. Here are lists of functions of ICs:
Amplification: increasing the strength of a signal
Switching: directing the flow of current between different paths
Oscillation: generating a periodic signal
Digital logic: performing logical operations like AND, OR, and NOT
Memory storage: storing digital information
ICs can be linear (analog), digital or some combination of the two, depending on their intended application.
In this type of ICs, the input and output both signals are continuous. The output signal level depends upon the input signal level and the output signal level is a linear function of input signal level. Linear ICs or analog ICs. Linear ICs are used as audio-frequency (AF) and radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers.
They are most commonly used for amplification, filtering, and signal processing in applications such as audio, radio, and medical equipment.
Unlike analog ICs, digital ICs don't operate over a continuous range of signal amplitudes. Rather, they operate at only a few defined (discrete) levels or states. Digital signal processors (DSPs), Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), Microprocessors are well-known examples of digital ICs.
Digital ICs are used in digital logic operations, memory storage, and communication in applications such as computers, smartphones, and networking equipment.
Logic Gate ICs
As the improvement of IC technology, ICs has led to the miniaturization of electronic devices and the proliferation of electronics in everyday life, from computers and smartphones to appliances and automobiles.
ICs are now used in an increasing number of applications, including:
Computers and smartphones
Televisions and home entertainment systems